Block 1 Objectives from 2008/2009

Scenario 1

Students should be able to:-

  1. Describe the structure and functions of skin.
  2. Describe the general structure and behaviours of human cells.
  3. Describe wound healing in the skin (at molecular, cell, and tissue levels).
  4. Distinguish between the terms: scratch, cut, abrasion and bruise.

Scenario 2

Students should be able to:

  1. Describe the obligation for consent in the doctor-patient relationship.
  2. Describe the concept of capacity to give or to refuse consent for medical treatment; and the right of the patient to refuse treatment.
  3. Define and describe what is meant by blood pressure, know expected values and have an overall view of how it is normally maintained.
  4. Describe the nature, mechanism, possible causes and management of a “faint”.
  5. Outline the use of stitches to promote wound healing and prevent scarring.

Scenario 3

Students should be able to:

  1. List the main components of blood and outline its functions.
  2. Describe how blood loss stops (haemostasis) after wounding.
  3. Outline the processes by which blood clots (coagulation).
  4. Illustrate how control and abnormalities of clotting are important in medicine.

Scenario 4

Students should be able to:

  1. Describe the layout of the circulation in general terms.
  2. Describe the structure and functions of arteries.
  3. Define shock and outline possible causes.
  4. Explain what has happened to cause David’s symptoms (i.e. symptoms of haemorrhagic shock).
  5. Describe the first aid management of arterial bleeding.

Scenario 5

Students should be able to:

  1. Describe the major blood cell types in blood and outline their functions.
  2. Describe how the various types of blood cells are derived from a common progenitor cell (haemopoiesis).
  3. Briefly describe the structure of haemoglobin.
  4. Discuss how red blood cells are produced in the body (erythropoiesis), including the expression of globin genes and hormonal regulation of the process.
  5. Describe what is meant by a blood transfusion and say why and when it is given.
  6. Explain why blood transfusions may cause iron levels to rise in patients.
  7. Outline the role of the Scottish Medical Consortium and its equivalent in England & Wales (NICE).

Scenario 6

Students should be able to:

  1. Describe the body’s general defence mechanisms (natural or innate immunity).
  2. Describe the inflammatory response to bacterial infection.
  3. Describe the normal flora of the skin.
  4. Describe the structure of bacterial cells, and state the major differences between these and eukaryotic (human) cells.
  5. Discuss possible local treatments for wound infections by bacteria, explain when they would be used, and how they work.
  6. Discuss the importance of infection control, both for medical personnel and for patients, and also how antiseptic agents may promote this.

Scenario 7

Students should be able to:

  1. Describe how immunisation (passive and active) works, using tetanus as an example.
  2. Describe the humoral immune response.
  3. Give an overview of tetanus, its causes, and clinical features.
  4. Describe how bacteria can cause infection and name some organisms that can cause superficial wound infection.
  5. Discuss the main classifications of antibiotics and how they work.

Scenario 8

Students should be able to:

  1. Describe the clinical features of mumps.
  2. Describe the characteristics of the mumps virus and the mechanism whereby it infects, replicates in and exits from cells.
  3. Describe the body’s immune response to infection with the mumps virus, with focus on the cell-mediated response.
  4. Describe the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
  5. Discuss the reasons for the rising incidence of mumps.
  6. Discuss the costs and benefits of mass immunisation programmes.

Scenario 9

Students should be able to:

  1. Discuss what is meant by the term “transplant”.
  2. Discuss the molecular basis for graft acceptance/rejection (i.e. transplantation antigens [ABO/HLA]).
  3. Discuss why some grafts are rejected and others are not.
  4. Discuss the main classifications of immunosuppressive drugs and how they work.
  5. Describe how organ donors are obtained.